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## Covalent Learning Centre

Organized professionals with 30+ years of teaching experience, CBSE evaluation, guidance and counselling skills. Available to share our knowledge and expertise through teaching. Skilled at communicating complex information in an easy and entertaining manner.

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## Maths

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## Syllabus For Class 8 Maths

Introduction, Properties of Rational Numbers, Representation of Rational Numbers on the Number Line, Rational Numbers between Two Rational Numbers

Introduction, Solving Equations which have Linear Expressions on one Side and Numbers on the other Side, Some Applications, Solving Equations having the Variable on both Sides, Some More Applications, Reducing Equations to Simpler Form, Reducing Equations to Simpler Form, Equations Reducible to the Linear Form.

Introduction, Polygons, Sum of the Measures of the Exterior Angles of a Polygon, Kinds of Quadrilaterals, Some Special Parallelograms.

: Introduction, Constructing a Quadrilateral, Some Special Cases.

Looking for Information, Organizing Data, Grouping Data, Circle Graph or Pie Chart, Chance and Probability.

Introduction, Properties of Square Numbers, Some More Interesting Patterns, Finding the Square of a Number, Square Roots, Square Roots of Decimals, Estimating Square Root.

Introduction, Cubes, Cube Roots.

Recalling Ratios and Percentages, Finding the Increase or Decrease Per cent, Finding Discounts, Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss), Sales Tax/Value Added Tax, Compound Interest, Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest, Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly (Semi Annually), Applications of Compound Interest Formula.

What are Expressions?, Terms, Factors and Coefficients, Monomials, Binomials and Polynomials, Like and Unlike Terms, Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions, Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions: Introduction, Multiplying a Monomial by a Monomial, Multiplying a Monomial by a Polynomial, Multiplying a Polynomial by a Polynomial, What is an Identity?, Standard Identities, Applying Identities.

: Introduction, Views of 3D-Shapes, Mapping Space Around Us, Faces, Edges and Vertices.

Introduction, Let us Recall, Area of Trapezium, Area of a General Quadrilateral, Area of a Polygon, Solid Shapes, Surface Area of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder, Volume of Cube, Cuboid and Cylinder, Volume and Capacity.

## Syllabus For Class 8 Science

• 1: Agricultural Practices
• 2: Basic Practices of Crop Production
• 3: Preparation of Soil
• 4: Sowing
• 6: Irrigation
• 7: Protection from Weeds
• 8: Harvesting
• 9: Storage
• 10: Food from Animals
• 1: Microorganisms
• 2: Where do Microorganisms Live?
• 3: Microorganisms and Us
• 4: Harmful Microorganisms
• 5: Food Preservation
• 6: Nitrogen Fixation
• 7: Nitrogen cycle
• 1:What are Synthetic Fibres?
• 2: Types of Synthetic Fibres
• 3: Characteristics of Synthetic Fibres
• 4: Plastics
• 5: Plastics as Materials of Choice
• 6: Plastics and the Environment
• 1: Physical Properties of Metals and Non-metals
• 2: Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals
• 3: Uses of Metals and Non-metals
• 1: Coal
• 2: Petroleum
• 3:Natural Gas
• 4:Some Natural Resources are Limited
• 1: What is Combustion?
• 2:How Do We Control Fire?
• 3Types of Combustion
• 4:Flame
• 5:Structure of a Flame
• 6:What is a Fuel?
• 7:Fuel Efficiency
• 1: Deforestation and Its Causes
• 2: Consequences of Deforestation
• 3: Conservation of Forest and Wildlife
• 4: Biosphere Reserve
• 5: Flora and Fauna
• 6: Endemic Species
• 7: Wildlife Sanctuary
• 8: National Park
• 9: Red Data Book
• 10: Migration
• 11: Recycling of Paper
• 12: Reforestation
• 1: Discovery of the Cell
• 2: The Cell
• 3: Organisms show Variety in Cell Number, Shape and Size
• 4: Cell Structure and Function
• 5: Parts of the Cell
• 6: Comparison of Plants and Animals Cells
• 1: Modes of Reproduction
• 2: Sexual Reproduction
• 3: Asexual Reproduction
• 2: Changes at Puberty
• 3: Secondary Sexual Characters
• 4: Role of Hormones in Initiating Reproductive Function
• 5: Reproductive Phase of Life in Humans
• 6: How is the Sex of the Baby Determined?
• 7: Hormones other than Sex Hormones
• 8: Role of Hormones in Completing the Life History of Insects and Frogs
• 9: Reproductive Health
• 1:Force: A push or a Pull
• 2:Forces are due to an Interaction
• 3:Exploring Forces
• 4:A Force can Change the State of Motion
• 5:Force can Change the Shape of an object
• 6:Contact Forces
• 7:Non-contact Forces
• 8:Pressure
• 9:Pressure Exerted by Liquids and Gases

11.10: Atmospheric Pressure

## Maths

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## Science

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## General course

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## General Course

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## Syllabus For Class 9 Maths

1. REAL NUMBERS
2. Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line. Rational numbers as recurring/ terminating decimals. Operations on real numbers.
3. Examples of non-recurring/non-terminating decimals. Existence of non-rational numbers (irrational numbers) such as √2,√3 and their representation on the number line.
4. Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type and

(and their combinations) where x and y are natural number and a and b are integers.

1. Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.)
1. POLYNOMIALS

Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros of a polynomial. Factorization of ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 where a, b and c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem. Recall of algebraic expressions and identities. Verification of identities  (x + y + z)2 = x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx

(x + y)3 = x3 + y3 + 3xy(x + y)

(x - y)3 = x3 - y3 - 3xy(x - y)

x3-y3 =(x-y)(x2+xy +y2)

x3 + y3 = (x+y)(x2-xy+y2) and their use in factorization of polynomials.

2.LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

Recall of linear equations in one variable. Introduction to the equation in two variables. Focus on linear equations of the type ax+by+c=0. Explain that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they lie on a line. Graph of linear equations in two variables. Examples, problems from real life with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously.

•   COORDINATE GEOMETRY

The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations, plotting points in the plane.

1. LINES AND ANGLES
2. (Motivate) If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180O and the converse
3. (Prove) If two lines intersect, vertically opposite angles are equal.
4. (Motivate) Results on corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines.
5. (Motivate) Lines which are parallel to a given line are parallel.
6. (Prove) The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180O .
7. (Motivate) If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.
8. TRIANGLES
9. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence). 4
10. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruence).
11. (Motivate) Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle. (RHS Congruence)
12. (Prove) The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.
13. (Motivate) The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal.
15. (Prove) The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles.
16. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and conversely.
17. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and conversely.
18. (Motivate) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and equal.
19. (Motivate) In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and conversely.
20. (Motivate) In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and in half of it and (motivate) its converse.

1. CIRCLES

Through examples, arrive at definition of circle and related concepts-radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, secant, sector, segment, subtended angle.

1. (Prove) Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse.
2. (Motivate) The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord.
3. (Motivate) Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center (or their respective centers) and conversely.
4. (Prove) The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.
5. (Motivate) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
6. (Motivate) The sum of either of the pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° and its converse.
7. CONSTRUCTIONS
8. Construction of bisectors of line segments and angles of measure 60o , 90o , 45o etc., equilateral triangles.
9. Construction of a triangle given its base, sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle.
1. AREAS

Area of a triangle using Heron's formula (without proof)

1. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES

Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres (including hemispheres) and right circular cylinders/cones.

1. STATISTICS

Introduction to Statistics: Collection of data, presentation of data — tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs

1. PROBABILITY

History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability. Focus is on empirical probability. (A large amount of time to be devoted to groupand to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiments to be drawn from real - life situations, and from examples used in the chapter on statistics)

## Syllabus For Class 9 Science

Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous

mixtures, colloids and suspensions.

Particle nature and their basic units: Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions,

Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the particles

and numbers.

Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common

compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.

Cell: Basic Unit of life:

Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic  and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.

Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism:

Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals;

Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).

Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their

causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and

their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight

line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of

uniform circular motion.

Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and Reaction

forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary

idea of conservation of Momentum.

Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth

(gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.

Work, energy and power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential

energy; Law of conservation of energy.

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## Science

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## General Course

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## Syllabus For Class 10 Maths

1. REAL NUMBER

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of irrationality of Decimal representation of rational numbers interms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.

1. POLYNOMIALS

Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials.

1. PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution,consistency/inconsistency.

Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically - by substitution, by elimination. Simple situational problems. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations.

Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solutions of quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots.

1. ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS

Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P

1. LINES (In two-dimensions)

Review: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula.Section formula (internal division).

1. TRIANGLES

Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.

1. 1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
7. 7. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the

squares on the other two sides.

1. CIRCLES

Tangent to a circle at, point of contact

1. 1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the

point of contact.

1. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal.
2. CONSTRUCTIONS
3. Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).
4. Tangents to a circle from a point outside it.
1. INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined). Values of the trigonometric ratios of 300, 450 and 600.Relationships between the ratios.

1. TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given.

1. HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES: Angle of elevation, Angle of Depression. Simple problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°.
1. AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES

Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°and 90° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)

1. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES
2. Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids,spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones.
3. 2. Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken).
1. STATISTICS

Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation and step deviation method for finding the mean to be avoided).

1. PROBABILITY

Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on finding the probability of an event.

## Syllabus For Class 10 Science

• Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a

balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition,

displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.

Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General

properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not

required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide,

Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.

Metals and nonmetals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and

properties of ionic compounds.

Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon.

Homologous series.

Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, early attempts at

classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves,

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency,

atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.

• Life processes: ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion

in plants and animals.

How Do Organism Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive healthneed

and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s

health.

Heredity And Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination:

brief introduction;

• Light Reflection And Refraction :Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature,

principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required),

magnification.

Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index.

Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula

(Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens.

Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
• Electricity: Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity,

Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors,

parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric

current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.

Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying

conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor,

Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential

difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule.

• Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production

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## Biology

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## Physics

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## Chemistry

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## Class 11 Syllabus For PHYSICS

Chapter–1: Physical World Physics-scope and excitement;

nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

(To be discussed as a part of Introduction and integrated with other topics)

Chapter–2: Units and Measurements

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Chapter–3: Motion in a Straight Line

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion, uniform and non- uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity - time and position-time graphs. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Chapter–4: Motion in a Plane Scalar and vector quantities;

position and displacement vectors, general vectors and their notations; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors, relative velocity, Unit vector; resolution of a vector in a plane, rectangular components, Scalar and Vector product of vectors. Motion in a plane, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion, uniform circular motion.

Chapter–5: Laws of Motion

Intuitive concept of force, Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.(recapitulation only) Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces, Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on a banked road).

Chapter–6: Work, Energy and Power

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Chapter–7: System of Particles and Rotational Motion

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, law of conservation of angular momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions. Moment of inertia, radius of gyration, values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (no derivation).

Chapter–8: Gravitation

Universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity (recapitulation only) and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential, escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite, Geo-stationary satellites.

Chapter–9: Mechanical Properties of Solids

Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus Chapter–10: Mechanical Properties of Fluids Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes), effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity, Bernoulli's theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Chapter–11: Thermal Properties of Matter

Heat, temperature,( recapitulation only) thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat capacity. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation (recapitulation only), thermal conductivity, qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's displacement Law, Stefan's law, Greenhouse effect.

Chapter–12: Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics), heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes

Chapter–13: Kinetic Theory

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro's number.

Chapter–14: Oscillations

Periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time, periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a loaded springrestoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period. Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Chapter–15: Waves

Wave motion: Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of travelling wave, displacement relation for a progressive wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, Beats

## Class 11 Syllabus For BIOLOGY

Chapter-1: The Living World

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature.

Chapter-2: Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae. (salient and distinguishing features and a few examples of each category).

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (salient features and distinguishing features of a few examples of each category).

(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology of inflorescence and flower, Description of 01 family: Solanaceae or Liliaceae (to be dealt along with the relevant experiments of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Animal tissues.

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins,

carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant - Growth and Development

Growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.

Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its

function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and their Elimination

Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system –

structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin -angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

Skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse.

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.

## Class 11 Syllabus For PHYSICS

• General Introduction: Importance and scope of Chemistry.  Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.  Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

• Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

• Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules(qualitative idea only), Hydrogen bond.

• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)

•   Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.  First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)  Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and non- spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.  Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).

•  Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, Henderson Equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

• 1: Discovery of the Cell
• 2: The Cell
• 3: Organisms show Variety in Cell Number, Shape and Size
• 4: Cell Structure and Function
• 5: Parts of the Cell
• 6: Comparison of Plants and Animals Cells
• Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water,heavy water, hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel

• Group 1 and Group 2 Elements  General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.

Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:  Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogen carbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium.  Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.

•  General Introduction to p -Block Elements  Group 13 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron - physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.

Group 14 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.

General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:  Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.  Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.  Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons:  Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution

## Maths

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## Syllabus For Class 12 CHEMISTRY

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.  Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult's law, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.

Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis: homogenous and heterogenous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts; enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Recalling Ratios and Percentages, Finding the Increase or Decrease Per cent, Finding Discounts, Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss), Sales Tax/Value Added Tax, Compound Interest, Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest, Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly (Semi Annually), Applications of Compound Interest Formula.

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.

Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).  Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.

Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.

Vitamins - Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

## Syllabus For Class 12 PHYSICS

• Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two-point

charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous

charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

• Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge(qualitative ideas only)

Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell(qualitative ideas only)

• Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment.

Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole

moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.

• Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz's Law,

Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits AC generator and transformer.

• Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

• Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker's formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum

• Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations;

Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. 16

Experimental study of photoelectric effect Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation

• Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force

Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

• Chapter–14:

Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.

## Syllabus For Class 12 BIOLOGY

• Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

• Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in human being, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

• Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

• Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

• Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation Biodiversity - Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites

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